There are number of prerequisites children need to become confident and competent in the area of literacy.

Phonological Awareness

This is the awareness and detection of sounds in language. It incorporates:-

  • Sound discrimination
  • Sound memory
  • Sound sequencing
  • Detecting and producing rhymes
  • Explicit discussion about sounds and manipulation of them within words

The knowledge and ability to match letter patterns with sounds. It includes the knowledge and application of rules of spelling words. Information about phonics assists in decoding and encoding new words.

Sight Words

Sight words are important in early reading acquisition. Not every word can be sounded out and some words need to be learnt as a whole unit. Although sight word knowledge builds fluency, a combination of sight word identification and phonemic decoding are important for skilled and successful readers

Reading Accuracy

This is a skill which progresses through levels from K- Year 6. It involves a combination of skills including vocabulary, word recognition, phonemic awareness, phonics knowledge, comprehension and fluency.

Reading Comprehension

Understanding of text involves connecting information in a complex manner. Students need background information about the topic they are reading. They also need to understand the terminology and vocabulary contained in the text. Competence in language (grammar and sentence structure) is also important. Students should understand the purpose of the text and be able to interpret meaning which is not explicit. Understanding of question types ensures the student answers with appropriate responses.


Knowledge of word usage builds understanding within a text but also aids word prediction while reading. The ability to successfully decode is further enhanced with age appropriate vocabulary skills. Students need to be able to associate words and link ideas. Semantic mind mapping (showing links between words) enhances understanding of the relationship between words.


When students have efficient decoding and word prediction skills, they are able to read with expression and at a rate which enhances meaning and flow. An appropriate level of text will facilitate fluent reading.

Written Expression

Sentence writing begins in its earliest form in Kindergarten. An ability to produce text which is complex and varied (in terms of text types) gradually develops throughout the school years. At high school level, students are competently constructing written expression for a range of purposes, which has accurate spelling, complex sentence construction, correct grammar, diverse vocabulary and engages the reader.

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